virus AIDS – ternyata ini yang menularkan pertama kali

hari aids sedunia

Sinergi Management | virus AIDS | hari AIDS Sedunia | penularan virus AIDS

Dalam rangka memperingati hari AIDS sedunia, ada baiknya kita perlu mengetahui tentang bagaimana penyakit berbahaya ini bisa menular kepada manusia. Virus ini telah membunuh lebih dari 35 juta manusia dibumi. Pada awalnya para ilmuwan mengidentifikasi sejenis simpanse di Afrika Barat sebagai sumber penularan HIV pada manusia. Mereka percaya bahwa versi simpanse dari virus imunodefisiensi (disebut virus imunodefisiensi simian atau SIV) kemungkinan besar ditularkan ke manusia dan bermutasi menjadi HIV ketika manusia memburu simpanse ini untuk diambil dagingnya dan bersentuhan dengan darah mereka yang terinfeksi. Selama beberapa dekade, virus perlahan menyebar ke seluruh Afrika dan kemudian ke bagian lain dunia.

Kasus infeksi HIV-1 yang paling awal diketahui pada manusia terdeteksi dalam sampel darah yang dikumpulkan pada tahun 1959 dari seorang pria di Kinshasa, Republik Demokratik Kongo. (Bagaimana ia menjadi terinfeksi tidak diketahui.) Analisis genetik dari sampel darah ini memberi kesan bahwa HIV-1 mungkin berasal dari satu virus pada akhir 1940-an atau awal 1950-an.

hari aids sedunia

 

Virus AIDS ini telah ada di Amerika Serikat setidaknya sejak pertengahan hingga akhir 1970-an. Dari 1979–1981 jenis pneumonia, kanker, dan penyakit lain yang langka dilaporkan oleh para dokter di Los Angeles dan New York di antara sejumlah pasien pria yang berhubungan seks dengan pria lain. Ini adalah kondisi yang biasanya tidak ditemukan pada orang dengan sistem kekebalan yang sehat.

Pada tahun 1982 pejabat kesehatan masyarakat mulai menggunakan istilah “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,”  atau AIDS, untuk menggambarkan kejadian infeksi oportunistik, sarkoma Kaposi (sejenis kanker), dan pneumonia Pneumocystis jirovecii pada orang yang sebelumnya sehat. Pelacakan formal (pengawasan) kasus AIDS dimulai tahun itu di Amerika Serikat.

Pada tahun 1983, para ilmuwan menemukan virus penyebab AIDS. Virus ini pada awalnya dinamai HTLV-III / LAV (virus limfotropik sel T manusia tipe III / virus terkait limfadenopati) oleh komite ilmiah internasional. Nama ini kemudian diubah menjadi HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

Selama bertahun-tahun para ilmuwan berteori tentang asal mula HIV dan bagaimana hal itu muncul pada populasi manusia, sebagian besar percaya bahwa HIV berasal dari primata lain. Kemudian pada 1999, tim peneliti internasional melaporkan bahwa mereka telah menemukan asal mula HIV-1, jenis HIV utama di negara maju. Sebuah subspesies simpanse asli Afrika ekuator barat telah diidentifikasi sebagai sumber asli virus. Para peneliti percaya bahwa HIV-1 masuk ke dalam populasi manusia ketika pemburu terkena pada darah yang terinfeksi.

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